## How do I know how many fish I can have in my pond? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: How do I know how many fish I can have in my pond?

Lynn – Leitchfield, KY

A: Fish are like potato chips: It’s hard to have just one. When you visit your local pet retailer or water garden center and see those goldfish and koi staring up at you through the water, how can you not take them home!

Too many fish in a pond, however, can create an unhealthy environment for your fish and a breeding ground for algae. The more fish you have, the more waste they produce – and that waste can turn into algae fertilizer unless you have the filtration power to pump it out.

Before you start buying bucket-loads of finned friends, figure out how many you can comfortably keep in your pond. Here’s how in five simple steps.

1. Calculate Pond Size

First, determine the square footage of your pond’s surface area by measuring its length and its width, and multiplying the two numbers. We recommend no more than 1 inch of fish for every square foot of surface area, so if your pond is 250 square feet, that’s a maximum of 250 inches of adult, fully grown fish. If you need help with the math, use our online calculator. You’ll just need to know your pond’s length, width and average depth.

2. Allow Room to Grow

If you’re starting with young or adolescent fish, don’t max out your fish volume right from the start. Remember that those little guys will grow – a 2 inch fry will turn into a 10 inch adult in no time – and they’ll produce more waste as they develop. Skip the guessing game of growing fish by stocking adults, such as those included in our koi packages. You’ll enjoy instant gratification and a pond full of colorful fish!

Whether you’re starting with young fish or adults, add just a handful at a time. Your pond will need time to “season,” or build up its biological filtration system (a.k.a. beneficial bacteria), to handle the new influx of fish waste. Introduce a few fish, and then wait several weeks before adding more. While you’re waiting, give your biological filter a boost with DefensePAC® Pond Care Package. It contains Nature’s Defense®, Clarity Defense® and Muck Defense® – all of which promote the growth of those beneficial microorganisms.

4. Keep Up with Routine Maintenance

Once your fish have moved in, help them feel right at home. Use natural bacteria to break down fish waste, uneaten food and other debris. Provide shade, habitat and safety with floating and submerged aquatic plants. Feed them a healthy diet, like The Pond Guy® Staple Fish Food, which has the right amount of protein to keep them healthy without producing a lot of excess waste. Provide a healthy ecosystem and tasty food, and you’ll have a pond full of happy fish!

A external pressurized filter like the AllClear™ PLUS can handle excess waste, thanks to its powerful combination of biological, mechanical and ultraviolet filters. Its backflush option makes it easy to clean, and it’s easy to install in an existing pond because the plumbing doesn’t need to be run through the liner.

Or if you want to upgrade your entire water feature, check out one of our Pond Kits. Available in several different sizes, they contain a pump, pressurized filter or waterfall filter, pond liner, underlayment, plumbing, foam, hardware and beneficial bacteria to jump-start your biological filtration. All you’ll need to add is fish!

Pond Talk: What’s your most memorable experience with a fish overpopulation problem?

## We will be adding a pond to our backyard and most ponds we’ve seen seem to be the same shape. Is there a reason for this? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: We will be adding a pond to our backyard and most ponds we’ve seen seem to be the same shape. Is there a reason for this?

Walter – Audubun, PA

A: Ponds come in all shapes and sizes: round, oblong, square, kidney-shaped, oval or whatever a designer can dream up. In most cases, ponds are designed to fit into and enhance the surrounding landscape. But does pond shape matter? Read on to learn more.

Tried-and-True Standards

Many ponds are curved and centered toward the viewing area – and there’s a good reason for that. An oval- or kidney-shaped pond allows you to see more of your water garden from one place. Imagine sitting on your deck or patio and enjoying a 180-degree view of your natural-looking waterscape. When compared to a perfectly round or square pond in the middle of your yard, you can see why one might have more aesthetic appeal than another.

Oval- or kidney-shaped ponds also allow for optimum circulation, particularly when a RapidFlo™ Ecosystem Pond Kit or AllClear™ Ecosystem Pond Kit is installed. A waterfall located at one end of a slightly curved pond will gently push the water toward your skimmer or pump for circulation and filtration. Round ponds or those with many coves or inlets may have areas of little circulation, which will require extra waterfalls, fountains or pumps to move the water and prevent it from stagnating.

Outside the Oval

Of course, if you want to play with pond shapes and design a waterscape that’s outside the ordinary, have at it! A rectangular pond teeming with colorful koi could be a stunning centerpiece in a modern-themed yard. A haphazardly shaped pond outlined with irises and arrowhead could transform a suburban postage-stamp yard into a natural wonderland. Just be sure you provide adequate aeration to all its corners and coves.

Regardless of its shape or size, a koi pond or water garden will make a valuable addition to your yard. Check out magazines for inspiration. Pin favorites on Pinterest. Sketch out your ideas. When you’re ready, talk to one of our pond experts or watch this video– and get ready to start digging!

Pond Talk: What shape is your pond? Or what shape do you wish you had built?

## Why do koi have barbels? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: Why do koi have barbels?

Janice – Clear Creek, KY

A:  Koi have been growing trendy whiskers way before the hipsters made it cool! Those whiskers—or barbels—are a defining characteristic of the fish. Here’s what they are, what they do, and why the popular pond fish has them.

Super-Sensing Organ
Barbels are sensory organs not unlike whiskers in mammals. Rather than being used for tactile sensing, however, a fish’s barbels are used for taste. Koi, along with catfish, goatfish, hagfish, sturgeon, zebrafish, some species of shark and other carp, have barbels. They use these taste bud-covered organs to search for food in murky water.

Tasting Without Ingesting
Koi and other carp have four barbels, with two on each side of the koi’s mouth (termed “maxillary barbels”). The top two appear shorter than the lower two, but they all serve the same purpose: taste debris without actually ingesting it. Being omnivorous scavengers that forage along murky pond and river bottoms, it’s a good survival skill to have.

Weird Appendages
As spring approaches and you start feeding your finned pals some Spring and Fall Fish Food, take a closer look at these weird appendages. Most koi (except those with mutations) have barbels—even koi fry have them! So go grab a pond net, catch a koi or fingerling, and look closely to see them.

As with hipsters and their whiskers, they probably won’t like you playing with their barbels. But they’re still fun to look at!

Pond Talk: Are some of your koi’s barbels bigger than others?

## 6 Ways you can Enjoy Your Pond this Season

6 Ways to Enjoy Your Pond this Season

If you were one of the many pond owners battling algae, muck, excessive weeds or green water last year, it may be difficult to remember why you wanted that pond in the first place. The beginning of the new pond season is the perfect time to do a little research, evaluate and tweak your pond maintenance practices. Getting a head start will allow you to make this years resolution to spend more time enjoying your pond, lake or water feature. Here are just some of the many benefits they offer.

1. Gives you a nice place to sit and relax: Imagine lounging in a hammock alongside your pond, swaying in the cool breeze. Picture yourself enjoying a cool glass of lemonade while sitting on your dock and watching your fountain cast rainbows against a blue sky. There is a reason why folks vacation at their favorite lake house! You could have one of your own in your back yard.
2. An investment in your home: Many of us today are trading vacations for “staycations,” and we’re looking at ways to build on our biggest investment, our homes. Landscaping with decorative water features and creating functional outdoor living areas adds value to a home. Plus, it’s fun to add personalized décor to turn the space into your own oasis.
3. It’s a hobby that’ll grow with you: Keeping a decorative pond will definitely be a learning experience, and as you learn more about the technical aspects of maintaining water quality, keeping koi or aquatic plants, and managing the pump and filter, your pond will look better and better, and bring you more satisfaction as a hobbyist.
4. Provides water fun for everyone: From paddle boating and swimming in the summer to ice skating and ice fishing in the winter, a pond or lake will be sure to satisfy just about any outdoor adventure. But remember to always play safe, making sure you supervise children at all times and have a life ring and rope nearby.
5. Creates a wildlife habitat: If you like the great outdoors and all the critters in it, you’ll appreciate the variety of wildlife a pond will bring. Animals of all sorts gravitate toward water. Depending on where you live, you can expect to see wild birds and water fowl, raccoons, turtles, frogs, butterflies and dragonflies, not to mention all the underwater life. These animals will call the pond and your property home, making it an entertaining ecosystem for your family and friends.
6. Cheaper than therapy: More than one pond owner has told us about how therapeutic their water features are! After a long day at the office, there’s nothing more relaxing than sitting alongside your pond with a cold drink in hand, feeding the koi and pond fish, or appreciating the water lilies in bloom.

Of course, these examples only scratch the surface of the benefits that a pond or water feature can bring to your yard. So take inventory of your supplies and make a plan so you can begin this pond season by relaxing.

Pond Talk: How do you plan on spending time by your pond this season?

## I started off with 4-inch koi and now they’re 8 inches. How big will they get before they stop growing? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: I started off with 4-inch koi and now they’re 8 inches. How big will they get before they stop growing?

Lauren – Lincoln, NE

A:  In an ideal environment—a supersize space with pristine water conditions at a stable 75 degrees Fahrenheit—an adult koi can reach a whopping 3 feet long. A yard! Nearly a full meter! Yep, that’s a really big fish.

Don’t worry: Chances are slim that your finned pal will grow to that immense length, but you can help it reach its full potential. Koi will keep growing and growing throughout their lives, sometimes faster than others. How fast and large they grow depend on several factors, including:

• Water quality. Clean water pumped full of oxygen will promote a fish’s health and growth, while poor water quality can stunt its growth. Koi will tolerate a dirty, cloudy environment, but their development and vitality will suffer. Make sure you have an aeration kit in place and are using beneficial bacteria from the DefensePAC® to keep the water crystal clear.
• Water temperature. A steady 75° F will keep koi in a more active growth state where they’re building muscle and body mass like crazy. Cooler or fluctuating water temperatures trigger a slower growth rate as they slow down their metabolism and activity level. If you live anywhere other than in the tropics, expect to see slower growth in the winter months.
• Nutrition. Food—and how much of it they eat—matters. Fish food that’s packed with protein and vitamins is formulated to help koi grow and develop. Some also contain ingredients that boost your fish’s vibrant colors.
• Genetics. Genes play a huge role in how large a koi could grow in the right conditions. Colossal parents often produce colossal offspring, and if those fry live in a spacious pond with clean, aerated water and good food, who knows how big they’ll get!
• Age. Like most living things, koi develop faster when they’re young and slower as they age. Your 4-inch koi quickly doubled in size because they’re still adolescents; as they get older, their growth rate will slow down.

If you have big plans for your koi, give them an ideal ecosystem and good grub. Your colorful friends may not reach that 3- or 4-foot mark—but you never know!

Pond Talk: What’s the largest koi you’ve ever had—or seen in person?

## How do I calculate what size basin I need for a pondless waterfall? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: How do I calculate what size basin I need for a pondless waterfall?

Robert – Waverly, TN

A:  With the help of a few friends, installing a pondless waterfall is an easy way to upgrade your land- or waterscape. If you are planning to design and build your own feature, here’s how to do the math to determine your basin size.

Step 1: Calculate total amount of water in your stream

Sound tricky? It’s not. To calculate the water that’s in motion in your stream, first measure your stream’s length, width and depth. Then plug those numbers into this equation: L x W x (0.25 x D of stream, generally 1 to 2 inches) x 7.48.

Here’s an example. If your stream is 25 feet long, 2 feet wide and 1 inch deep, the equation would look like this: 25 x 2 x (0.25 x 1) x 7.48 = 93.5 gallons.

Step 2: Calculate amount of water your basin needs to hold

As a general rule, you will need your basin to hold 2½ times the amount of water in your stream. To find out how much water your basin will need to hold, multiply the gallons of water in your stream by 2.5. In the above example, it would be 93.5 x 2.5 = 233.75 – so your basin would need to hold 233.75 gallons of water.

Step 3: Determine the size basin needed to hold the water

Here’s where things get a little tricky. You’ll likely use boulders, stones and other décor in your design. Well all that rockwork will take up space for water, and so you’ll need to go with a larger vessel.

Try this quick equation that will help you determine what size basin you’ll need with boulders: L x W x D x 2.2 = gallons of water the basin will need to hold. To give you an idea, a 5 foot by 10 foot basin that’s 3 feet deep and contains stone will hold 330 gallons of water.

A space- and cost-saving option is to use a basin matrix in place of some of the boulders. A basin matrix is a strong, 27-by-16-by-17½-inch hollow box that’s perforated with half-inch holes to allow water to collect and pass through. You can stack them together and landscape right over them. Each basin matrix holds 31.5 gallons, adding valuable water volume without increasing the size of the basin. Don’t forget to add a pump vault for easy access to your pump.

Go with a Kit

If you aren’t trying to customize a large waterfall, consider investing in a pond free waterfall kit, like PondBuilder™ Cascading Falls Pondless Kits. They contain all components you’ll need – from underlayment and liner to a waterfall box, pump, basin matrix and plumbing – with predetermined dimensions to help you create your water feature.

Pond Talk: What’s the largest size boulder you’ve installed in your water- or landscape?

## Do I need to hire someone to install lighting in my pond, or is that something I can do? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: Do I need to hire someone to install lighting in my pond, or is that something I can do?

Tiffany – Savannah, TN

A: Unless you’re planning a Bellagio-esque display in your backyard, you can most certainly install some show-stopping lighting. It’s perfect for the do-it-yourselfer: A simple transformer and some quick connections allow any homeowner to take their water feature to the next level.

Layout Lighting Goals

Before you dive in, however, brainstorm what you’d like the lighting to do. What are your goals?

• If you’d like a few lights to mark the pond at night, check out our Floating Solar Lights. They’re a great way to add nighttime illumination to any pond or water garden. The LED lights, which shift between pink, yellow and blue, are solar-powered and maintenance-free – making them an energy-efficient choice that will last for years.
• If you’d like to illuminate a waterfall or accent a small water feature, take a look at our waterfall lights and three-pack halogen mini lights. The Pond Guy® Waterfall Light highlights waterfalls via its submersible 10-watt halogen light. It’s waterproof and includes a low-voltage transformer. The LEDPro™ Rock Lights feature a realistic stone finish, allowing them the blend naturally with your landscape.
• If you’d like to light up your entire pond, try our LEDPro™ High Output Lights. They can be used in or out of water and shine with the same intensity as a 50-watt halogen bulb but with a longer life span and lower energy cost.

Easy Installation

Installing these lighting systems is easy. If you’re considering the LEDPro Rock Lights or High Output lights, there’s virtually no work at all. They contain a photocell, so the light will automatically turn on when it’s dark and turn off when the sun rises.

Most other pond lights we offer have standard plugs, so there’s no need for additional control panels or wiring. Before installing them, check out these pro tips:

• To give you better access, partially drain the pond when installing the lights.
• Leave extra power cord wrapped around the light so you can easily access it for maintenance or cleaning without draining the pond.
• Position the lights so they shine out into the pond rather than facing you.

Pond Talk: What kinds of lights do you have illuminating your pond?