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I see giant tadpoles and small black ones. Are these the same type of tadpoles at different stages? | Ponds & Lakes Q&A


Q: I see giant tadpoles and small black ones. Are these the same type of tadpoles at different stages?

Q: I see giant tadpoles and small black ones. Are these the same type of tadpoles at different stages?

Roxanne – Summerfield, FL

A: From your description, it sounds like you have different types of tadpoles living in your pond. But to know for certain, let’s discuss how to distinguish bullfrog and toad tadpoles and understand how they develop into adults.

Egg-Citing Development

Both bullfrogs and toads reproduce by laying eggs in the water. Female bullfrogs deposit their eggs on the pond surface in large round clusters or masses protected by aquatic plants. One bullfrog can lay up to 20,000 eggs, which are then fertilized by the males. Toads create strands of dark-colored eggs that look like black pearls attached to foliage and leaves near the water’s edge.

After seven to 10 days, frog or toad tadpoles hatch from their eggs. Bullfrog tadpoles appear dark green to black in color and they’re big – much larger than other species of frog or toad. They also mature more slowly when compared to their toad counterparts. In fact, bullfrogs will stay in their tadpole stage for almost three years before transforming into adults.

From Adolescent to Adult

A toad’s and frog’s physical development from tadpole (or pollywog) to adult are similar. As tadpoles, they live exclusively in the water and nibble on aquatic plants for nourishment. At first, their bodies are long and narrow and include a tail where they store fat when food is in short supply during the winter months. Eventually, the tadpoles will start to grow back legs, followed by their front legs. And then their tails shorten and disappear, and they develop lungs. Before long they’re full-fledged adults.

Survive and Thrive

As with most critters in the wild, the strongest will survive – and tadpoles are no different. Out of the thousands of pollywogs that are born, only a percentage will make it to adulthood. They have, however, evolved some survival traits that protect them from predators, including their camouflage color that makes them excellent at hiding.

You can help boost their survival numbers by installing a decoy device, like an Owl Decoy or Nite Guard Solar®, designed to chase away rodents and snakes. With its timed head rotation powered by a built-in solar panel, the Owl Decoy will help repel nuisance birds and other small critters during the day. And the Nite Guard Solar® LED lights that resemble a predator’s glowing eyes will keep your pond – and your toads and frogs – safe at night.

Pond Talk: What kinds of frogs and toads live in your pond or lake?

Protect From Rodents &;amp Snakes - Scarecrow® SOL-R Action Owl

4 Responses

  1. If you have a small backyard pond and have a few bullfrog tadpoles that live to become frogs you should be aware that your bird population may take a hit. Bullfrogs eat birds! They grab them as the birds come to the water to drink, and eat them live, like some snakes do. At our last house I had put in a pond (about 20′ by 10′) and bought a few bullfrogs tadpoles along with some goldfish, not knowing that. Then I saw it happen, much to my amazement, and began to see the odd dead birds around the ponds that didn’t get eaten. Researching the issue confirmed in writing what I saw. At our current house, with a smaller decorative pond (and a few goldfish) we’ve had young bullfrogs show up (we’re near the Niagara River) and I saw the same thing. So now when a frog or two shows up (native frogs never do, only bullfrogs, which are not native to western NY) I catch them ASAP and re-home them downriver a mile or two. They don’t come back, but the odd new one does pretty much each year.

    • Thanks for sharing Marian, I haven’t witnessed anything like that happen around our ponds thankfully!

  2. I used to have lots of tadpoles in my pond here in central Fl, but now that my koi have gotten larger, they have a very short life expectancy! Also I have seen a number of frogs in my pond skimmer that are missing their back legs.

    • Thanks for the comments Jerry, sometimes the biggest predators are the ones already in the pond!

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