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Besides koi, what are some other types of fish for my pond? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: Besides koi, what are some other types of fish for my pond?

Q: Besides koi, what are some other types of fish for my pond?

Judy – N Tonawada, NY

A: Koi may be the living jewels of the pond world, but you can choose from a variety of fish that are suitable for your water garden – most of which can be found at your local pet store. Some of our favorites include:

  • Comets/Sarasa: Colorful and active, these varieties of goldfish are distinguished from their aquarium cousins by their long, single and deeply forked tail fin. In optimal conditions, their tails can grow up to 2 feet in length! Comets typically have red and white coloration with red appearing on the tail and dorsal fin. The Sarasa’s color pattern, in fact, often resembles a kohaku’s, making it quite koi-like. These guys have a life span of 7 to 14 years or more.
  • Shubunkin: Another variety of goldfish, shubunkins sport opalescent red, white, grey, black and blue scales in a calico pattern – and the bluer, the better (according to fanciers). They have streamlined bodies with well-developed and even fins. Shubunkins, which hail from Japan, reach a length of 9 to 18 inches and live 7 to 14 years or more. They add a big splash of color to your pond.
  • Plecostomus: Why not put your fish to work for you! The plecos is an omnivorous fish that will actually eat your string algae (as well as leftover fish food and other scraps). In a pond, sucker fish can grow up to 2 feet long. Because he is a tropical fish, he will need to be overwintered inside when water temperatures dip below 60° Fahrenheit because he’ll die in temperatures below 55°F.

As temperatures start to dip in the fall, it’s a great time to add new fish. Just make sure you have the necessity on hand to acclimate them. You’ll need Pond Salt, which will reduce the fishes’ stress, improve their gill function and protect them against common pond toxins while adding essential electrolytes to the water. You’ll also need Stress Reducer PLUS, which forms a protective slime coat on your new fish, and removes chlorine, chloramines and heavy metals from tap water. For more tips for acclimating your new fish, check out our blog post here.

So many fishes, so little time … With all these fabulous finned friends to choose from, you’ll wish you had a bigger pond!

Pond Talk: How many varieties of fish do you have in your water garden? What’s your favorite?

Daily Summer Diet For All Fish Varieties - View Pond Logic® Ponstix Floating Fish Food

How do I treat my pond fish for ich and other diseases? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: How do I treat my pond fish for ich and other diseases?

Q: How do I treat my pond fish for ich and other diseases?

Nadine – Okemos, MI

A: There’s nothing sadder than a sick fish—particularly when it’s your friendliest koi or most gregarious goldfish. If your underwater pal is looking a little under the weather, here’s what you need to do to nurse him back to health.

1. Water Change

Some clean, fresh water can make a big difference. It’s full of oxygen, and it’s devoid of pathogens that could be sapping his immune system and making him sick. So the first thing to do is complete a 25 percent water change to get some new wet stuff into the pond.

If only one or two fish seem to be affected, sequester them in an isolation tank. You can use an aquarium, a large plastic bin, a child-size swimming pool—whatever size is appropriate for your fish. Be sure to add pond salt to the water, which reduces fish stress, as well as an aerator and a net to cover the tank.

2. Inspect Your Fish

Next, you’ll need to get up close and personal with your finned friend. Examine him from head to tailfin. Do you see any signs of inflammation? Is there redness in his gills? Do you see cuts or scrapes? Strange parasites or spots? Make note of unusual findings to determine what illness your fish has. Some common diseases include:

  • Ich: Technically known as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, ich is an ectoparasite that presents as white spots on the body, fins and gills. Symptoms include loss of appetite, rapid breathing, hiding, resting on the bottom of the pond or tank, flashing, rubbing and scratching against objects, and upside down swimming near the surface. If not treated, ich will kill your fish.
  • Anchor Worm: These copepod crustaceans from the genus Lernaea are parasites that latch onto fish and grow into an unsegmented worm-like protrusion. Visible with the naked eye, anchor worms cause localized skin redness and inflammation. A fish with anchor worm may frequently rub on objects or flash, have trouble breathing and appear lethargic.
  • Fungus: Unlike ich and anchor worms, fungal disease—scientific name Saprolegnia—is an actual fungus that grows on fish that are injured or sick. Appearing as a white coating or cotton-like growths on the skin or fins, the fungus will eat away on the fish if left untreated, ultimately killing the fish.

4. Treat the Disease

Once you’ve determined what ails your fish, treat him with an appropriate remedy. You can find a range of treatments on The Pond Guy® Fish Health page, but here are some popular choices:

  • MinnFinn™ is a natural, biodegradable, broad-spectrum treatment for parasites and fungal and bacterial infections. Many issues can be eliminated in as few as one to three treatments.
  • Microbe-Lift® Parazoryne specifically attacks parasites, like anchor worms, fish lice and flukes, on goldfish and koi.
  • Aquatic Nutrition Medicated Fish Food is formulated with four antibiotics that combat bacterial infections and disease while providing nutrition to your pond inhabitants. The soft pellets sink to the bottom of the pond where sick fish tend to hide.
  • CrystalClear® KnockOut™ PLUS treats just about everything, including ich, parasites, protozoa, bacteria and fungi, that affect koi and goldfish.

4. Reevaluate Your Routine

You know the old saying, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure …” Well, when it comes to fish health, most times it’s true. Prevention is key to keeping your koi and goldfish healthy, and that prevention centers on your maintenance routines.

We recommend routine water changes, use of pond salt in low doses (don’t worry: it’s safe for your plants), filter clean-outs and removal of debris from the bottom of your pond. Doing so will keep your pond clean—and your fish happy and healthy.

Pond Talk: Have you ever nursed a fish back to health? If so, what did you do?

Treat A Broad Spectrum of Illnesses - MinnFinn™ Biodegradable Pond Treatment

My water garden has turned green. Will a UV light help my pond? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: My water garden has turned green. Will a UV light help my pond?

Q: My water garden has turned green. Will a UV light help my pond?

Al – Mount Holly, NJ

A: Ultraviolet bulbs can work wonders in an algae-filled pond, particularly one in full sunlight. As the green water passes by the light, concentrated UV rays damage the tiny plants, ultimately killing them.

UV clarifiers work well and can certainly help your pond, but they shouldn’t be your primary method of algae control. Before investing in a UV unit, check your mechanical and biological filtration first.

Mechanical Filtration

Did you perform a thorough spring cleanout of your pond? Is your filter overloaded with debris? Do you need to wash out or replace your filer pads? Is the system sized appropriately for your pond? You may need to make some filtration upgrades. The Pond Guy® AllClear™ Pressurized UV Filter adds mechanical and biological filtration as well as a UV clarifier, giving you three types of filtration in one unit.

Biological Filtration

In addition to checking your mechanical filtration system, you should also make sure you’re following a regular maintenance routine by adding Nature’s Defense® and Muck Defense® to your pond. A healthy population of beneficial bacteria—your biological filtration—will keep the nutrient load in check, which will starve the algae out of your pond.

UV Clarifier

If your mechanical and biological filtration are taken care of and your water is still too green to enjoy your koi and goldfish, consider a UV light. Here are some tricks for choosing the right one:

  • Wattage: The first trick to getting the best results is to pick a UV bulb that has a high enough wattage for your pond’s volume. All UV clarifiers are rated based on pond size. The larger the wattage, the larger the pond size the UV clarifier can handle.
  • Flow Rate: The second trick is to pump the water past the bulb at just the right flow rate. Pushing water past the UV light too fast can render it ineffective, while pushing the water too slow can cause the UV clarifier to act like a sterilizer, killing not only algae but your beneficial bacteria as well. A great rule of thumb is to push the water approximately half of what the UV is rated per hour. For example, The Pond Guy® 9-watt PowerUV™ Ultraviolet Clarifier is rated for ponds up to 1,200 gallons, so a 600 GPH pump would be ideal.

Another point to consider: Do you want an above-water UV clarifier, like the PowerUV™, or a submerged one? If you’re looking for a below-water model, check out the Pondmaster® Submersible UV Clarifier. It includes a Halo Ring that lights up to show you the unit is working.

Pond Talk: What kind of luck have you had luck using an ultraviolet clarifier?

Eliminate Discolored Water - The Pond Guy(r) PowerUV(tm)

I top off my pond for evaporation, so why do I need to do water changes? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: I top off my pond for evaporation, so why do I need to do water changes?

Q: I top off my pond for evaporation, so why do I need to do water changes?

Joan – Bethesda, MD

A: Topping off your pond with fresh water isn’t quite the same thing as a water change. Think of it like the oil in your car: You may “top it off” when the lubricant gets low, but to keep your motor humming, you need to do a complete oil change every 3,000 miles or so to remove the dirty oil that’s full of sludge and combustion by-products.

It’s the same idea with the water in your pond.

Adding water every week or so to replenish any lost from evaporation is certainly important—but it does nothing to remove the sludge, or algae-feeding nutrients, in your pond. As the water evaporates, the gunk stays behind and concentrates. Your filter does a good job removing the pollutants, but unfortunately it’s not always enough.

So why do water changes?

  • Remove the buildup of nutrients, like nitrates and phosphates
  • Promote fish health, as their well-being is directly related to your water quality
  • Reduce algae blooms

To keep buildup under control, we recommend you change 10 percent of your water every week, or 20 percent of your water every two weeks. Many pond owners use a spare pump and hose to draw out the dirty water and send it down the drain. If you have a pressure filter, using its back flush feature is the perfect way to make the water change.

If your tap water has chlorine or other heavy metals, don’t forget to make it safe with Pond Logic® Water Conditioner. It removes chlorine, destroys chloramines and detoxifies heavy metals. One ounce treats 500 gallons.

In addition, make sure you add some beneficial bacteria to the mix, like Pond Logic® Nature’s Defense® or LiquidClear™, because when you change the water, some good stuff goes out with the bad! Both products contain microorganisms that instantly activate once they hit the water, multiplying every 20 to 40 minutes as they digest organics in your pond.

Make water changes a regular part of your pond-maintenance routine.

Pond Talk: What water-change routine has worked well in your water garden or koi pond?

Neutralize Harmful Water Contaminates - Pond Logic(r) Water Conditioner

My pond was clean but now it’s starting to turn green. What should I do? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: My pond was clean but now it’s starting to turn green. What should I do?

Q: My pond was clean but now it’s starting to turn green. What should I do?

Cynthia – Richmond Hill, GA

A: First of all, don’t panic! Let’s begin by taking a look at the three main causes of green water: too many fish, inadequate filtration and not enough plant coverage.

Control Your Fish Population

A booming population of goldfish, koi or other pond fish means an overload of fish waste, and all those excess nutrients actually feed the algae that’s turning your water green. To keep that waste in check, we recommend one 6- to 8-inch fish per 10 square feet of surface area. If you have too many finned friends, consider giving some away.

Provide Adequate Filtration

If your fish are family members and you’re not quite ready to bid them adieu, you’ll need to pump up your filtration with an AllClear™ PLUS filter. Adequate mechanical, biological and ultraviolet filtration will remove the excess waste from the water and help control the prolific green stuff.

Shade the Water

Algae are plants, and plants need sunlight to grow. A third way to control algae is to shade the water with plants like water lilies and water hyacinth. We recommend that you shade 40 to 60 percent of your pond for best results. The plants also provide all-natural biological filtration and make your water garden look great. Not sure what kinds of plants to get? Start with our Aquatic Plant Package, which includes a great selection of cultivars for your pond size.

Give It Time …

Most importantly, try to practice some patience. If you’ve just done a major cleanout, your biological filtration may need some more time to get established and working. Give it a kick-start with some beneficial bacteria like Nature’s Defense®. The microorganisms will get to work digesting those dead organics.

If you control your fish population, adequately filter and shade your water, and boost your biological filtration by adding bacteria, your pond will be clear again before long—and you can stop singing those green-water blues.

Pond Talk: If you’ve had to give away some of your fish, how do you find new homes for them?

Three Types Of Filtration, One Powerful Unit - The Pond Guy® AllClear™ PLUS Pressurized Filter

How do I know it is OK to put my fish back into the outdoor pond? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

How do I know it is OK to put my fish back into the outdoor pond?

Q: How do I know it is OK to put my fish back into the outdoor pond?

Ronnie – Salt Lake City, UT

A: This time of year, most of us are suffering with some cabin fever—including your pond fish. After being cooped up all winter long in a temporary indoor aquarium or tub, they’re ready to swim back to their spacious outdoor home.

But before you relocate your fish, you have some work to do first. The best time to return them to the pond is several weeks after you’ve done all the necessary chores to prepare for their homecoming. To make things easy, check out our four-step checklist:

    1. Spring Cleaning: First, clean out your dormant pond. Remove any debris that has settled over the past few months, and perform a thorough spring cleanout to remove winter buildup. This will give your finned friends a nice place to come home to—and minimize algae growth in the spring.
    2. Jump Start Filtration: About a month before you plan to return your fish to the pond, start your filtration system and let it run without fish. Turn on your mechanical filter and seed your filter pads with beneficial bacteria, such as Microbe-Lift® PL Gel, to speed the colony’s growth (but first make sure the water temperature is above 55° Fahrenheit with your pond thermometer). Keep in mind that in the spring, a filter can take four to six weeks to become established, so adding fish without adequate filtration established can result in quick algae formation.
    3. Test Your Water: While your pond is cycling, periodically check your water chemistry with a PondCare® Master Test Kit to ensure the pond water is balanced and pH, ammonia and nitrate levels are safe for fish.
    4. Acclimate Fish: The final step before re-homing your fish is to help them get used to the pond’s water temperature, which will likely be colder than their winter housing. Carry your fish out in a bucket and slowly add water from the pond to the bucket at 10- to 15-minute intervals, using your pond thermometer to check the water temperature as you go. This shock-prevention technique will allow them to adjust slowly—and safely—to their outdoor digs.

Your fish may become stressed during the indoor-to-outdoor transition, but you can keep it to a minimum by preparing their home and making sure they’re as healthy as possible in advance of their relocation. Have fun moving!

Pond Talk: Do you notice a change in your fishes’ behavior when they transition from indoors to outdoors?

Protect Your Prized Fish - PondCare® Master Test Kit

My skimmer keeps clogging with leaves, how can I keep them out of my pond? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

My skimmer keeps clogging with leaves, how can I keep them out of my pond?

Q: My skimmer keeps clogging with leaves, how can I keep them out of my pond?

Joyce – Stewartstown, PA

A: There’s no surer sign of fall than falling leaves. Unfortunately, when those leaves land in your pond or water garden, they can create a water-quality mess. As they break down and decompose, they can turn your water brown and leave behind muck and detritus.

Thank goodness for pond netting.

These temporary covers keep leaves, pine needles and other debris from landing in your water feature. You can purchase several different types—but which one is right for you?

To help you choose, ask yourself these three simple questions:

1. How long do you intend to use the netting?

Many of us are pinching our pennies these days, and so the less-expensive one-season-use net, like DeWitt Pond Netting, is an attractive option. The 3/4-inch black polypropylene mesh, which comes in a range of sizes to fit just about any pond, prevents debris (and predators, too) from getting into your pond without restricting air flow or views.

For a little more money, however, you could purchase a higher-quality net/pond cover system, the Nycon Big Top Pond Cover, which can be used year after year. Also available in a range of sizes, this pond cover features a netting with a hemmed, fray-resistant border; center pole(s); brass stake grommets; and aluminum stakes that can weather years of use. The net is made with 1/4-inch black nylon mesh, which keeps some of the smallest debris from entering your pond.

2. What types of leaves will be landing in and gathering around your pond?

Look around your yard. What kinds of tress do you (and your neighbors) have? If you have trees with larger leaves, like maple or oak, you can easily rake up the blowing leaves from around your pond, scoop them out of your pond with a portable pond net or skimmer, and prevent them from landing in there with a basic 5/8-inch nylon mesh netting, like The Pond Guy® Pond Cover Net.

If you have pine needles and smaller leaves around, however, you’ll need to cover your pond or water garden with a tighter-weave mesh, such as The Pond Guy® Fine Mesh Cover Net. This clear, heavy-duty, 1/8-inch mesh netting prevents stubbornly small debris from landing in your pond while still allowing light to shine through. It includes plastic stakes to secure the netting.

3. What is your main goal?

Are you a no-muss, no-fuss kind of water gardener who avoids pond chores like the plague? Then you should invest in a tent-type netting system with a center hub, like the The Pond Guy® PondShelter™ Net Kit. This fully adjustable unit with an aluminum frame will fit most pond configurations. It supports a swath of durable, black 1/4-inch mesh, which keep debris from entering the pond. And the kit includes 30 metal stakes to ensure the unit stays in place.

If, however, you want to see your fish, and you’re OK with a few scattered leaves and doing a bit of work to remove them, then consider one of the fine, economy or premium surface netting options, like ç Fine Mesh Cover Net, the DeWitt Economy Pond Netting or The Pond Guy® Pond Cover Net.

Pond Talk: What tricks do you use to keep leaves from landing in your pond or water feature?

The Pond Guy® PondShelter™ - Keep Leaves & Predators Out

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