## How do I know how many gallons are in my pond?| Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: How do I know how many gallons are in my pond?

Jolene – New Rochelle, NY

A: Gallons matter. Knowing how much water your pond holds will help you determine the size of aeration and filtration systems you need. It will also help you properly dose your pond with commonly used pond products and determine how many fish your pond can house.

So how do you calculate this all-important figure? Put on your thinking cap, because we’re revisiting some high school geometry.

Rectangular Ponds

The easiest ponds to measure are those that resemble a rectangle. If you’ll recall from geometry class, you can calculate a rectangle’s volume by multiplying its length by its width by its height, so L x W x H.

First, to get your length and width, measure your pond at its longest point and its widest point. Figuring out its depth is a bit trickier, particularly if you have plant shelves or if the pond has a slope. If it is the same depth throughout, use that number in your formula. If you have a plant shelf or the depth varies, measure the maximum depth and cut it in half to create an average depth. For instance, let’s say the pond is four feet at its deepest but has some shallow areas for plants. Use half of that depth, or two feet, for your formula.

So let’s put this in real terms: If your pond is 15 feet long by 10 feet wide by 2 feet deep, your pond’s volume is 300 cubic feet. One cubic foot holds 7.48 gallons of water, so multiply 300 by 7.48 to get your total – which equals 2,244 gallons.

Circular Ponds

If your pond is round or oval, you’ll start by using the formula to find the surface area of a circle – which is Pi x Radius2 , or 3.14 x R x R. The radius of your pond is half the distance across, so if your pond is a 10 foot circle, the radius is 5 feet. Your formula will look like this: 3.14 x 5 x 5 = 78.5.

Next, figure out your pond’s depth, just like we did with the rectangular pond. If it’s 4 feet deep with plant shelves and sloped sides, use 2 feet. Then multiply that number by your surface area: 78.5 x 2 = 157 cubic feet.

Finally, convert that number into gallons. One cubic foot holds 7.48 gallons of water, so 157 x 7.48 = 1,174 gallons.

Irregular Shaped Ponds

The more irregular your pond’s shape, the less accurate your measurement will become – but it’s OK. In most cases, you don’t need to pinpoint its volume to the exact gallon. Use whichever formula best resembles your pond’s shape. For instance, if your pond is kidney shaped, use the rectangle formula and remember that the final figure will be slightly higher.

Playing with the Numbers

With your newfound numbers, head over to The Pond Guy’s® online calculator where you can plug in those figures and see how many boulders you need, how many fish your pond can hold, what pump size you need and more.

Now aren’t you glad you paid attention in geometry class?

Pond Talk: What kinds of improvements have you made to your pond or backyard this summer?

## Someone told me I need to do the Jar Test. What is that? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: Someone told me I need to do the Jar Test. What is that?

Margie – Clinton, ME

A: Let me guess: You have discolored or cloudy water, right?

Your friend gave some good advice. If you have green- or tea-colored water, or murky water in your pond, a jar test is an easy way to diagnose just what’s causing those clarity issues.

It’s simple to do. Take a clear glass jar, dunk it into your pond, fill it up with the water and let it sit for 24 hours. Overnight, the jar and its contents become a miniature version of your water garden – and it’ll reveal the source of your problem. Here’s how to read your jar:

Green Water

If your jar contains green-tined water or if the water has green particles in it, you most likely have algae. Planktonic algae – the source of algae blooms – are floating, microscopic plants that color pond water green, blue-green, brown or variations in between. Your jar is telling you to treat for algae with an algaecide like AlgaeFix®. It clears up all types of algae blooms fast.

Tea-Colored Water

Discolored or tea-colored water means you have some leaf tea brewing in your pond. As organic debris decomposes in your pond, the tannins and other byproducts mix into the water column, discoloring it. Your first remedy is to add a bag of Activated Carbon to the water. It will clear up the dissolved materials that are causing the problem. While the carbon is working, remove floating and decaying material with Collapsible Skimmer Net and ClearVac™ Pond Vacuum. Keep your pond clean by skimming it regularly and covering it with pond netting or a Pond Shelter™ during the fall months.

Water with Sediment

Does your jar have clear water with a layer of sediment on the bottom? If so, you have an abundance of organics in the pond, and your fish are constantly stirring them up and clouding the water. Your four-step solution: Remove large debris, perform a partial water change, add a Water Conditioner, and double down on the beneficial bacteria from the DefensePAC®.

A jar test can reveal a lot about the water in your pond. If you need some assistance in discerning what your jar is telling you, just email one of The Pond Guy experts. They’re there to help!

Pond Talk: Have you ever been surprised by the results of a jar test in your pond?

## Should I turn off my UV light when adding water treatments, like Nature’s Defense®, to my pond? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: Should I turn off my UV light when adding water treatments, like Nature’s Defense®, to my pond?

Olivia – Blissfield, MI

A: Great question! The answer all depends on the kind of ultraviolet light you’re talking about – so let’s quickly go through the differences between a UV sterilizer and a UV clarifier.

UV Sterilizer: Cleans It All- Good and Bad

A UV sterilizer completely sterilizes the water – which means it kills anything and everything that floats past its path, including beneficial bacteria found in some water treatments. These units are effective at killing floating algae and harmful pathogens like parasites, but they kill the good stuff, too. We don’t recommend adding bacteria to your pond while using a UV sterilizer.

UV Clarifier: Targets the Green Stuff

A UV clarifier is different. It targets just algae and leaves the bacteria alone (as long as the unit is sized right for the pond). The clarifier uses ultraviolet light to destroy the reproductive ability of suspended green stuff. Dead algae then clumps together into particles large enough to be removed by mechanical filtration, leaving the pond cleaner and clearer. If pea soup water is a recurring problem for you, add a UV clarifier to your pond.

Optimize the Flow

If you use a UV clarifier, you can leave the light on while you use bacteria-based treatments, like those found in the DefensePAC® Pond Care Package. But just be sure the bulb and pump are sized correctly.

Bright Enough Bulb: For a UV clarifier to be most effective, the bulb needs to have a high enough wattage for your pond’s volume. All UV clarifiers are rated based on pond size. The larger the wattage, the larger the pond size the UV clarifier can handle.

Power to the Pump: The water needs to flow pass the UV bulb at the just right speed, so the pump size is important. If the water moves too quickly, it won’t kill the algae and it could cause the seals on the unit to malfunction; if it moves too slowly, it will kill the algae and beneficial bacteria. A great rule of thumb is to push the water approximately half of what the UV is rated per hour.

A convenient option is to try out an all-in-one unit, like the AllClear™ & SolidFlo™ Combo Kits. The mechanical and biological filter system comes with a built-in UV clarifier. When used with the SolidFlo pump, you’ll be well on your way to clear water.

One last tip: Keep the water well-circulated by running an aeration system, like one of the Airmax® Aeration Kits. Its diaphragm compressors and air stones keep the beneficial bacteria supplied with oxygen, as well as ensure every drop of water and every algae cell float past that UV bulb.

Pond Talk: When have you used an UV clarifier in your pond?

## How do I know if it’s a leak or evaporation loss?| Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: How do I know if it’s a leak or evaporation loss?

Dena – Albrightsville, PA

A: A little water loss in your water garden is normal – but when it disappears by the inches, you’ve got a mystery to solve. These step-by-step sleuthing tips, below, can help you deduce whether it’s summertime evaporation or a liner leak.

Step 1 – Look for Evaporation Clues

During the heat of the summertime, you can expect some all-natural water loss. Thanks to evaporation, up to an inch (give or take) of water will naturally disappear from the pond, and if you have a long stream bed with a lot of surface area or a large pond with few floating plants, even more water could transform from liquid to vapor. If you suspect evaporation, fill the pond back up and keep an eye on the water level.

Step 2 – Check for Dampness Around the Pond

If more than an inch of water is disappearing every day, you could be dealing with a leak. Walk around the pond and waterfall or stream, and carefully inspect the soil for signs of unexplained moisture. If you find some, take a closer look at that spot’s liner and construction. Leaking water has to go somewhere, and a patch of wet ground is clear indicator of a problem.

Step 3 – Finding Liner Rips

If you suspect a rip or hole in your liner, keep a close eye on the pond’s water level until it stops falling. When it does, that’s when you should look for the leak. Because the water level will stabilize once it lowers past the hole, you should be able to find the problem at or below the water level and fix it.

To repair the leak, you have two options: repair the hole with a patch found in the EPDM Pond Liner Patch Kit, or close it up with some underwater sealer, like Gold Label Pond and Aquarium Sealer. The patch kit comes with everything you need to fix minor tears in your pond liner, including an EPDM patch, solvent wipe, scrub sponge, seam roller and pair of disposable gloves. The underwater sealer, which works on wet or dry surfaces, instantly repairs leaks in rubber and vinyl liners.

Step 4 – Shore Up Your Stream

If you found moisture outside of your stream or waterfall, turn off your pump and inspect the rocks and liner around the wet spot. Is there a hole in the liner? Repair the leak with your liner patch kit. Is water pooling under rocks or splashing outside the stream? Redirect it back down to the pond with Black Waterfall Foam. Once you apply it, it’ll look like shadows between the rocks.

Step 5 – Inspect Your Fittings

Finally, if you’ve ruled out evaporation and there are no damp areas around the circumference of your pond to be found, the culprit could be your pressurized filter, tubing or connections. Inspect the plumbing on the pump or waterfall where pipe splits or loose fittings could be leaking, and repair it as necessary.

Good luck finding the cause of your pond’s water loss!

Pond Talk: How much water evaporates from your pond per day in the summertime?

## The string algae seems to grow in just a few hours in my stream. What can I do? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: The string algae seems to grow in just a few hours in my stream. What can I do?

Edith – Marion, IN

A: String algae. It seems to just grow and grow, leaving a tangled mess of green slimy stuff in your stream and water garden. Like other types of algae, string algae thrives on sunlight and excess nutrients like fish waste and decomposing organic matter in the water. If you want to get rid of it, check out this five-step plan designed to get your string algae problem under control.

• Add Plants: Water lilies, water hyacinth, water lettuce and other floating aquatic plants look much nicer than algae, right? These ornamental plants will compete for the food source algae uses for growth, so plant away! A simple rule of thumb is to have 60 percent of your pond covered with submerged, floating and marginal plants.
• Ration Fish Food: Those pellets and sticks are necessary to feed your finned friends, but keep in mind that fish food adds nutrients to the water in two ways: as wasted food that the fish don’t eat, and as waste after the fish digest it. Monitor how much your fish actually eat and cut back if possible.
• Pump Up Filtration: If your filtration system isn’t powerful enough to handle your pond’s total fish load, you’ll wind up with burgeoning algae growth and, in worst-case scenarios, lethal levels of ammonia – neither of which you want. Many filters on the market are rated for ponds containing no fish or minimal fish, so get a filter that is rated for at least two times the water volume of your pond.
• Turn Up Aeration: Beneficial bacteria, like those found in the DefensePAC®, naturally break down fish waste, but they need oxygen to thrive and reproduce. By adding a PondAir™ Aeration System, you’ll boost the oxygen in the water, increase your bacteria levels and reduce the nutrient load, thereby reducing algae growth.
• Use Oxy-Lift Defense: As needed throughout the season, use Oxy-Lift™ Defense® to lift string algae from waterfalls, streams and rocks. Simply shut down your waterfall, sprinkle the powder directly onto debris-covered areas and watch it instantly start foaming. In 24 hours, it will have removed the algae. Be sure to pull out any debris with a pond net.

String algae may seem like a never-ending battle, but you can manage it with these tried-and-true methods. Good luck!

Pond Talk: How often do you need to scrub string algae from your waterfall or stream?

## My fish has something red on its side. What could it be? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: My fish has something red on its side. What could it be?

Ted – White Marsh, MD

A: It sounds like your finned pal has a parasite called anchor worm. And they’re no fun.

These copepod crustaceans from the genus Lernaea bury themselves into the muscles of fish where they live and grow for several months, transforming into an unsegmented worm-like protrusion. Once developed, they make their way out of the fish, leaving behind bad wounds – which is the red area you’re seeing on your fish. Right before anchor worms die, they release their eggs and the cycle repeats over and over again.

A fish suffering from an anchor worm infestation will show the following signs:

• Frequent rubbing or ‘flashing,’ which is when it rubs its body up against objects attempting to dislodge the parasite
• Localized redness
• Inflammation on its body
• Tiny white-green or red worms in wounds
• Breathing difficulties
• General lethargy

Parasites like anchor worms can be introduced into the pond when new aquatic critters or plants are added to the existing mix. Unbeknownst to water garden hobbyists, the anchor worms hitch rides on the other fish or in the soil and roots of plants and establish themselves in their new home.

The cure for anchor worms is a pond-wide treatment with an anti-parasitic medication like KnockOut™ PLUS. As soon as you see signs of anchor worm, pour the recommended amount in your pond daily for seven consecutive days. When the infection clears up, continue treatment for an additional three days to ensure the parasites are gone for good.

If you plan to add fish or plants to your pond this summer, you can also use KnockOut™ PLUS as a preventive. It treats a variety of other fish ailments, including ich, fungus and flukes. Simply add it to the water when you introduce the new pond inhabitants.

Good luck getting those anchor worms under control. We hope your fish feels better soon!

Pond Talk: Have your fish suffered from some sort of parasite? How did you get rid of it?

## My water lilies have lots of leaves but no flowers. What’s wrong?| Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: My water lilies have lots of leaves but no flowers. What’s wrong?

Lucinda – Angier, NC

A: Those lily pads may provide much-needed shade and protection to your pond’s underwater inhabitants, but if the plants lack those beautiful pink, peach, yellow and white flowers, that could be a sign that something’s amiss.

Here, we’ve outlined some possible causes of your lilies’ missing flowers:

• Not Enough Nutrients: Curling or yellowing of the leaves or flowers can be signs of nitrogen, iron and magnesium deficiency. Have you fertilized your lilies lately? If not, if may be time to give them a little plant food. Thrive™ Aquatic Plant Fertilizer Tablets slowly release nutrients for up to one month, providing your plants with what they need to flourish.
• Insufficient Light: Are your lilies getting six to eight hours of partial to full sun a day? Without that sunshine, the plant will appear weak and frail. If they’re under a canopy or in a shadier part of your pond, move them to a sunnier location.
• Overcrowded Plants: Plants – terrestrial and aquatic – need room to stretch out their roots and grow. If they’re placed in a tiny planter or there are too many packed in one area, this can stunt their development. Take some time to pull out those plant baskets from your pond and divide the lilies into separate pots. Here are step-by-step instructions for dividing water lilies.
• Poor pH Levels: Water lilies do best in water that’s in the 6.2 to 7.4 pH range. Check pH levels frequently with a pH Test Kit to ensure the measurements are within that range and correct them accordingly.

Like your roses or other plants in your flower garden, your water lilies will benefit from some regular trimming and dead-heading. Prune or trim any flowers or leaves that have turned yellow or brown. This will encourage new growth – and hopefully some new blooms!

Pond Talk: How do you increase blooms from your water lilies?

## I’m jealous of my friend’s waterfall. Where do I start?| Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: I’m jealous of my friend’s waterfall. Where do I start?

Ethan – Kailua-Kona, HI

A: Waterfall envy. We’ve all experienced it. It’s that feeling you get when you see those stunning synchronized fountains at the Bellagio in Las Vegas, some over-the-top displays during your local pond and garden tour, or your pal’s 15-foot 20,000-gallons-per-hour jaw dropper. You think, wow, my waterfall stinks. I want that in my back yard!

Let’s turn that jealousy into motivation.

With some planning, some equipment and a weekend (or two) of hard work, you can create a waterfall that will rival the others in your neighborhood. Here’s how.

Be Budget Mindful

Before you begin, think about how much money you want to spend and then work to develop a project budget. In most cases, the larger the waterfall, the more expensive it will cost—but some of those top-of-the-line accessories for smaller features can cost quite a bit, too. If you need some help, call a pond-building professional in your area who can assess your needs and suggest a starting point.

Making Space

You’ll also want to consider how much room you have for your waterfall. Do you want to add a new feature to your existing pond? Alternatively, are you planning to build one from the ground up? In either case, how large will it be, and where will it go? Make sure that it’s sized appropriately for your pond and/or yard, and position it in a place where you can enjoy it.

Changing the Look

If you have an existing pond and want to add a waterfall while changing the look of the water’s flow, check out the ClearSpring™ Waterfall Filter. Not only does it provide maximum year-round filtration to your pond, but it also offers two weir options – a smooth surface and a ribbed pattern – to add diversity to your water feature.

Another option is to increase your existing flow rate by bumping up your tubing size and pump size. More water and increased movement can make dramatic impacts in your water feature, and it’s an easy adjustment to make with some plumbing and pump swaps.

Hobby Time

Finally, think about how much time you realistically want to spend maintaining your water feature. Are you a weekend warrior with a full-time job, or do you have a busy family with soccer games every weekend? If so, you may not have a lot of time to spend on weekly and seasonal maintenance chores, like leaf netting and winterizing. A Pondless Waterfall Kit is an excellent solution. It provides the sights and sounds of running water with little maintenance.

If you have more time on your hands, consider adding a self-enclosed pond with pops of color to your landscape. The Colorfalls Basin Kit with Color Changing Waterfall Weirs is an easy-to-install system that includes a reservoir, the plumbing, the pump, all the fittings, double filtration, splash mat and even an automatic fill valve. The color changing weirs feature 16 patterns and 48 color options – which should be enough to make your friend jealous!

## I’m looking to cut back on energy costs. Can I shut off my waterfall at night? | Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: I’m looking to cut back on energy costs. Can I shut off my waterfall at night?

Gita – San Tan Valley, AZ

A: Energy costs have certainly been on the incline lately, and so it makes perfect sense to search for ways to save some of your hard-earned cash. If you must – though it’s not ideal – you can shut off your waterfall at night as long as you have your aeration system operating. It’ll keep the oxygen flowing overnight.

However, consider the hidden costs that you could be incurring:

Dealing with Poor Fish Health:

Still, quiet water – even just during the overnight hours – means that fewer water molecules are circulating and making contact with oxygen-rich air at the pond’s surface. The stagnant water will be unable to release dangerous gases, like ammonia, and absorb life-giving oxygen. That could cause your fishes’ immune systems to suffer, which could lead to disease or worse.

Replacing Beneficial Bacteria:

For your filtration system to remove contaminants from the water, it needs moving water flowing through it – so if your pump is off, your water’s not moving. If all the water drains out of your filter, you could wind up with a loss of the beneficial bacteria that live on the media inside, which means you’ll need to replace them later.

Managing Algae Blooms:

Moving water helps to keep debris suspended in the water column and pulled through the skimmer and filter for efficient removal. But if the pump is turned off, that debris will settle to the bottom of the pond and build up, creating a dense food source for nuisances like algae. When it starts to bloom, it’ll take your time, energy and some algaecide to clear up – which can equal a pretty penny.

Pond pump manufacturers understand that water gardeners are concerned about operating costs, so many of the designs on the market today, including the RapidFlo™ and MagFlo™ Pump, are energy efficient and consume relatively little electricity. Pumps that used to cost \$100 a month or more to run have been replaced by models that cost as little as \$12 a month. Now that’s some serious savings!

Pond Talk: Besides shutting down your waterfall pump at night, what are some other ways you’ve cut water garden expenses?

## I bought bullfrog tadpoles for my pond. What do I need to know about them?| Decorative Ponds & Water Gardens Q & A

Q: I bought bullfrog tadpoles for my pond. What do I need to know about them?

Iris – Kirkland, WA

A: Those big croaking amphibians sure love living in a water garden. Bullfrogs gobble pesky bugs and nibble on nuisance algae while entertaining their human hobbyists with their leaping prowess and trance-inducing ribbit-ribbit songs.

When they’re adults, bullfrogs are impressive creatures: As one of the largest frogs in the world, they grow to 8 inches long and weigh up to 1½ pounds. When they’re tadpoles, they’re impressive, too. The dark green swimmers measure up to 6 inches long, which is larger than most other frog species, and sport a dorsal fin that begins behind its arrowhead-shaped body.

Caring for your tadpoles involves understanding their habitat, diet and developmental stages. Here’s what you need to know to grow your baby bullfrog into a beefy bug-eating adult.

Healthy Habitat

Bullfrog tadpoles like to swim in shallow water on fine gravel bottoms. As they grow, they tend to move into deeper waters. They have speckled-skin camouflage to help protect them from predators, but you should still plan to provide a wide variety of floating and submerged plants, like parrots feather, frogbit and water lilies, as well as rocks and other hides to your pond. The little guys will hang out among them should a hungry bird or fish fly or swim by for a bite to eat.